This is an interesting photo of a Bavarian Air Service pilot.  He is wearing a large medal bar with the Military Max Joseph Order Knight’s Cross, a Bavarian Military Merit Order IV Class with Swords, and a Prussian Iron Cross 2nd Class.  These awards appeared to have been artistically “added” to the photo, or were enhanced by an artist to add detail.  Sometimes artists added awards to a photo to update the photo with the recipient’s most recent awards after the recipient had died and it was therefore not possible to take a new photo.  Also, if certain details on a photo were out of focus, artists were sometimes utilized to enhance the image.




Image 1: Photograph of a Bavarian Air Service pilot.  Image from author’s archive.



The pilot is also wearing his Prussian Iron Cross 1st Class, an Army Wound Badge (Verwundetenabzeichen für die Armee) most likely in “silver” (mattweiß) for three or four wounds, or possibly, but less likely, in “gold” (mattgelb) for five or more wounds, and a Qualification Badge for a Bavarian Pilot (Flugzeugführerabzeichen).  The interesting feature of the Pilot’s Badge is that is a badge that is was originally a Prussian-type Pilot’s Badge that had an Imperial Crown.  The Imperial Crown was removed and a Bavarian Royal Crown was added by a jeweler.  This is believed to have sometimes been done by the recipients who were Bavarian due to a shortage of commercially-produced Bavarian Pilot’s Badges at the time.  These awards appear in the photo to not have been artistically enhanced.  The presence of a Army Wound Badge indicates that this photo was taken in 1918, or thereafter, as the Army Wound Badge was founded on March 3, 1918.  This fact will be very important in determining who the pilot in this photo is.

The pilot is wearing a Bavarian (as indicated by the buttons) field-gray Officer’s uniform.  The pilot is also wearing a ring on his left hand which is of a distinctive design.




Image 2: A close-up of the pilot’s large medal bar.  Image from author’s archive.




Image 3: A close-up of the pilot’s other awards.  Image from author’s archive.




Image 4: A close-up of the ring on the pilot’s finger.  Image from author’s archive.



Now that we have reviewed the awards of this Officer, since he was a recipient of the Military Max Joseph Order Knight’s Cross, and since he was in the Bavarian Air Service, it should be relatively easy to determine who he was.  According to Neil O’ Connor: “The Knight’s Cross was given to only 11 fliers during the war, each of whom was serving in a Bavarian aviation unit at the time their actions earned them the award.  None of the six Knight’s Crosses given to non-Bavarians went to a flier.”


The eleven (11) Bavarian aviation recipients who received the Military Max Joseph Order Knight’s Cross were (in order of when they were appointed to the Order):

Leutnant Walter Ritter von Lichtenberger (Observer)

Leutnant Maximilian Ritter von Mulzer (Pilot)

Leutnant Hans Ritter von Adam (Pilot)

Oberleutnant Eduard Ritter von Dostler (Pilot)

Oberleutnant Friedrich Ritter von Krausser (Observer)

Leutnant Max Ritter von Müller (Pilot)

Leutnant Friedrich Ritter von Röth (Pilot)

Oberleutnant Eduard Ritter von Schleich (Pilot)

Leutnant Hermann Ritter von Lechner (Observer)

Oberleutnant Robert Ritter von Greim (Pilot)

Leutnant Georg Ritter von Hengl (Observer)


Thus, of the eleven (11) recipients, only seven (7) of them were pilots.  On September 26, 1916 Leutnant Mulzer died during a test flight.  On August 21, 1917 Oberleutnant Eduard Dostler was killed-in-action.  On November 15, 1917 Leutnant Hans Adam was killed-in-action.  On January 9, 1918 Leutnant Max Müller was killed-in-action.  Since the pilot in the photo is wearing an Army Wound Badge, Leutnant Mulzer, Oberleutnant Dostler, Leutnant Adam, and Leutnant Max Müller can be eliminated from the list of possible Officers.


The five (5) Bavarian Officers who received the Military Max Joseph Order Knight’s Cross while serving in ground combat units and were later transferred to the Air Service (Fliegertruppe) were (in order of when they were appointed to the Order):

Leutnant Karl Ritter von Gruny ex-I.R. 1 (Observer)

Leutnant Maximilian Ritter von Müller* ex-Pionier-Batallion Nr. 1 (Unknown)

Leutnant Reinhold Ritter von Benz ex-I.R. 17 (Pilot)

Leutnant Adolf Ritter von Tutschek ex-I.R. 3 (Pilot)

Leutnant Georg Ritter von Reiner ex-R.I.R. 10 (Pilot)


*Not to be confused with Leutnant Max Ritter von Müller


Thus, there are a total of seven (7) possible matches for the Officer shown in this photo:

Leutnant Reinhold Ritter von Benz

Oberleutnant Robert Ritter von Greim

Leutnant Maximilian Ritter von Müller

Leutnant Georg Ritter von Reiner

Leutnant Friedrich Ritter von Röth

Oberleutnant Eduard Ritter von Schleich

Leutnant Adolf Ritter von Tutschek


Photographs of Ritter von Greim, Ritter von Röth, Ritter von Schleich, and Ritter von Tutschek are often seen.  I have never seen photographs of Ritter von Benz, Maximilian Ritter von Müller, and Ritter von Reiner however.  So which one of these seven (7) pilots is this a photograph of?  Do you know?  What are your thoughts?


Thank you for your interest regarding this article. Comments are welcome.

– Lorin



Kramer, Rudolf von, Waldenfels, Otto von, and Pechmann, Dr. Günther Freiherr von.  Virtuti Pro Patria, Der königlich bayerische Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden, Kriegstaten und Ehrenbuch 1914-1918.  Selbstverlag des königlich bayerischen Militär-Max-Joseph-Ordens, München, 1966.

O’Connor, Neal W., Aviation Awards of Imperial Germany in World War I, Volume I – The Aviation Awards of the Kingdom of Bavaria, Foundation for Aviation World War I, Princeton, New Jersey, USA, 1988.


© 2017. All Rights Reserved.  The content displayed in this article (including all photographs) is the intellectual property of the author.  You may not reuse, republish, or reprint such content without the written consent of the author.

Please follow and like us:
  1. Servus,

    I can show a picture of Maximilian von Müller. The awards are also. He had several injuries. See pictures.

    Many greetings from Bavaria

  2. However, he lost his right arm, which in the certainly brought the Golden VWA. On the screen, but recognizes that he has both arms. Could be also a photo montage.

    • Servus,

      Thank you very much Walter for the photograph of Maximilian von Müller. He is certainly a possibility for the unidentified pilot. They don’t seem to look exactly alike, but it is difficult to be certain. The photograph that I have listed could definitely be a montage as noted. The large medal bar was certainly added to the photo. The other awards could also have been added to the photo, making the date of the photo uncertain. It therefore could be Maximilian von Müller in the photo, prior to the loss of his right arm. I appreciate your comments!

      With friendly greetings from the USA,


  3. Servus Lorin,

    Hi, especially also the Bavarian aviation badge I notice, which is hardly an awarded original. The Crown appears to be slotted worked and set off towards the front. Especially, I can recommend and when searching for images. At is a picture of Ritter von Benz and others to see.

    Many greetings from Bavaria

    • Servus,

      Thank you Walter for the links to these great websites. I will look for the image of Ritter von Benz. You are correct about the Bavarian Pilot’s Badge, it is a rather unusual modified piece.

      With friendly greetings from the USA,


  4. Hello,

    The more that I look at this photo, the more I am convinced that this may be an early photo of Robert Ritter von Greim. Although this pilot’s hair is parted in the middle, and in known photos Ritter von Greim’s hair is parted on the side, such a style change is a possibility. The ring worn on the small finger of the left hand is also consistent with Greim, as he was known to wear a ring on that same finger.


  5. v Greim as a young man.


  6. Hello Lorin,

    I found this thread late and have my own thoughts.
    If the ring is a signet ring with a noble coat of arms the wearer should be ennobled.

    Leutnant Reinhold Ritter von Benz, had 5 injuries and additional MVO 4a but was ennobled after his death which happened August 1918.

    Oberleutnant Robert Ritter von Greim, Pour le Mérite, additional MVO 4a but was ennobled after the war

    Leutnant Maximilian Ritter von Müller, wound badge yes, MVO 4b, ennobled 1916

    Leutnant Georg Ritter von Reiner, wound badge yes, MVO 4b, ennobled after the war

    Leutnant Friedrich Ritter von Röth, Pour le Mérite, additional MVO 4a but was ennobled after the war

    Oberleutnant Eduard Ritter von Schleich, Pour le Mérite, additional MVO 4a, ennobled August 1918

    Leutnant Adolf Ritter von Tutschek, Pour le Mérite, additional MVO 4a ennobled 1916

    If the ring is what I see and if it is a valid criteria as well as the missing PlM for three of the optional persons I would tend to Ritter von Müller or alternatively to Ritter von Reiner.

    Only thoughts…


    • Hello Harald,

      Thank you very much for your comments regarding the photo. I agree with your thorough analysis.
      You bring up some interesting possibilities regarding the identification of the pilot. I hope that
      I can find a photo of Ritter von Reiner for comparison at some point.

      With friendly greetings from the USA,


  7. Hello, is the medal bar real, or retouched or painted into the photo? Bavarian pilot badge, wound badge and ek1 look clear, but the medal bar not so, particularly the mmjo. I have seen cases of pilots who were nominated to receive the pour le merite(plm), but for some reason never got the award. However, pictures of them often show a painted plm. Could it be this case with this mmjo?

    • Hello George,

      Thank you for your interest in this article. Yes, the image of the large medal bar was added to the photograph of this pilot or was touched-up after the photo was taken. It is certainly possible that he was awarded the MMJO RK posthumously.

      Best regards,


Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.