This award was founded by King Maximilian II on June 10, 1849 as a commemorative medal for “the soldiers, non-commissioned Officers, Officers, Staff Officers, Generals, and military officials of the Army Divisions in the Palatinate (Pfalz) in the Year 1849 for their loyalty to their duty which they had proven during the time of the uprising there”, per the statutes of March 17, 1850.

The Officers and loyal soldiers of the 4th Squadron of the Baden 2nd Dragoon Regiment, which had made up part of the garrison of Landau during the period of rebellion, also received this medal.  The Gendarmes stationed in the Palatinate who remained true to their service oath and duty at the time of the rebellious movements that took place there, then those of the Customs Border Guards who remained dutiful at the time of the uprising in the Palatinate also received this medal.  Award of this medal was not extended to civilians.

On March 19, 1850 supplemental regulations were adopted regarding this award:

 

Urkunden-Beilage II.

(Kriegs-Ministerial-Rescript vom 19. März 1850 Nr. 3641.)

 

Nr. 3641.

Das Denkzeichen für die treugebliebenen Individuen des Heeres in der Pfalz im Jahre 1849 zur Zeit des dortigen Aufstandes betr.

 

Maximilian II.

von Gottes Gnaden König von Bayern etc. etc.

 

Wir finden Uns bewogen, aus Anlass mehrseitiger Anfragen als Ergänzung zu Unserer allergnädigsten Entschliessung vom 10. Juni von Jahre über die Verleihung einer Gedächtniss-Medaille an die Soldaten, Unterofficiere, Officiere, Stabs-Officiere, Generale und Militär-Beamten der Heeres-Abtheilungen in der Pfalz im Jahr 1849 für ihre während der Zeit des dortigen Aufstandes bewährte Pflichttreue Folgendes allerhöchst zu verordnen:

I.  Dieses Denkzeichen darf von den hiezu berechtigten Besitzern nur in der von Uns vorgeschriebenen Form, ohne mindeste Abänderung derselben, und das Band nie ohne dasselbe getragen werden.

II.  Der Anspruch auf dieses Denkzeichen geht für die Besitzer desselben verloren

  1. in allen Desertionsfällen ohne Unterschied, ob der Deserteur freiwillig zurückkehrt oder aufgegriffen wird,
  1. für alle wegen Verbrechen oder wegen der im § 4 des Heer-Ergänzungs-Gesetzes vom 15. August 1828 bezeichneten gemeinen Vergehen Verurtheilte,
  1. für diejenigen, welche dieses Denkzeichen veräussern.

 

III.  Denjenigne Besitzern dieses Denkzeichens, welche nachzuweisen vermögen, das sie solches unverschuldet verloren haben, oder dass es ihnen entwendet worden, wird selbes wieder vom  Kriegsärar ersetzt.

IV.  Nach dem Ableben eines Besitzers verbleibt sein Denkzeichen als ehrendes Andenken seinen Verwandten.

V.  Die Berechtigung zur Tragung des Denkzeichens ist bei Unterofficieren und Soldaten jedesmal im Abschiede zu bemerken; die übrigen Besitzer erhalten über diese Berechtigung eine Urkunde.

Sämmtliche Truppen-Abtheilungen sind zur genausten Befolgung dieser Unserer näheren allerhöchsten Bestimmungen anzuweisen.

 

München, den 17. März 1850.

Maximilian

An das Kriegsministerium

Lüder.

 

A rough translation into English:

 

Document Supplement II.

(War Ministerial Rescript of March 19, 1850 No. 3641.)

 

No. 3641.

The commemorative medal for the loyal individuals of the Army in the Palatinate in 1849 at the time of the uprising there.

 

Maximilian II.

by God’s grace King of Bavaria etc. etc.

 

We find ourselves prompted, on the occasion of multi-page inquiries as a supplement to our Most Gracious Resolution of June 10th of the year of the award of the commemorative medal to the soldiers, non-commissioned Officers, Officers, Staff Officers, Generals and military officials of the army divisions in the Palatinate in 1849 for their loyalty to duty, which had proven their worth during the uprising there:

I.  This commemorative medal may only be worn by the owners entitled to do so in the form prescribed by Us, without any modification of the same, and the ribbon can never be worn without the same.

II.  The right to this commemorative medal is lost for owners of the same

  1. In all desertion cases, regardless of whether the deserter returns voluntarily or is picked up,
  1. For all crimes or because of the § (Section) 4 of the Army Supplementary Law of the 15th of August 1828 designated common offenses condemned,
  1. For those who sell this commemorative medal.

 

III.  The owners of this commemorative medal, who can prove, that they have lost such through no fault of their own, or that it has been stolen from them, will have the same again replaced by the War Treasury.

IV.  After the death of an owner, his commemorative medal remains as an honorable memento for his relatives.

V.  The right to wear the commemorative medal is to be noted every time in the separation/discharge document (Abschiede) of non-commissioned Officers and soldiers; the other owners receive a certificate of this authorization.

All divisions of the troops are to be instructed to strictly obey these, Our more exacting, highest regulations.

 

Munich, the 17th of March, 1850.

Maximilian

To the War Department

Lüder.

 

On the obverse of the medal is the right-turned head of the founder surrounded by the inscription: “MAXIMILIAN II KOENIG V. BAYERN”.  Under the neck section in “diamond font” is the name of the die-cutter: “C. VOIGT”.  Carl Friedrich Voigt was born in 1800 in Berlin and worked as a die-cutter. He was in München after 1829.

On the reverse of the medal in a framing in the form of a star-redoubt, which is to remind of the defense of the Fortress Landau against the rebels, in three lines: “IN / TREUE FEST / 1849”.

The medal is 31 mm in diameter and was made of bronze.  The ponceau-red (red poppy colored) ribbon for the medal is 37 mm wide, with two bright-green edge stripes each 2 mm wide.  The medal was worn on the left chest of the recipient.  I have not been able to locate source information regarding the total number of awards of this medal that were made.

The medal shown below was die struck.  There are multiple impressions on the medal obverse and reverse from circular and radial die cracks.  The die cracks are severe enough to indicate that the die probably did not last much longer after this medal was struck.  It is likely that the die eventually shattered and had a catastrophic failure.

 

 

Figure 1-Obverse of the Bavarian Commemorative Medal for the Year 1849. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 2-Reverse of the Bavarian Commemorative Medal for the Year 1849. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 3-Detail of obverse a circular die crack impression. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 4-Detail of obverse die strike impression. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 5-Detail of obverse a circular die crack impression. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 6-Detail of obverse a circular die crack impression. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 7-Detail of reverse circular and radial die crack impressions. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 8-Detail of reverse radisal die crack impressions. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 9-Detail of reverse circular and radial die crack impressions. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 10-Detail of reverse radial die crack impressions. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 11-Detail of reverse. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Some of the medals that I have viewed appear to have been cast from bronze and not die-struck.  These medals appear to possibly be from around the time period that the die-struck medals were awarded.  An example of such a medal is shown below.  The eyelet for the ribbon ring appears to have been integral to the casting and was not joined later.  Porosity and other minor imperfections, probably from a casting process, can be seen on the surface of the example shown.  The edge of the medal also shows signs of porosity.

Were these cast medals copies made at a later date as replacements for recipients, or examples for museums, or for collectors?  Or, were these medals cast and distributed at some point during the initial awarding process instead of die-struck medals being distributed? One possibility, is that these cast medals were made officially later in the production process and then awarded.  It is possible that at some point during the production process, the dies fractured, thus halting the production stamping process.  And, if another set of dies was not available, then further medals could only be made by making castings from a mold made from an original die-struck planchet.  Thus, it is possible that both die-struck and cast medals could be encountered, both of which may have been period-made and possibly awarded to recipients.  This is only one possible theory.  It is also possible that such cast pieces were counterfeits made to deceive collectors for monetary gain.  However, medals such as the piece shown below appear to possibly have been made mid-19th Century and possibly worn by a recipient.

 

 

Figure 12-Obverse of a cast Bavarian Commemorative Medal for the Year 1849. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 13-Reverse of a cast Bavarian Commemorative Medal for the Year 1849. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 14-Obverse Detail of a cast Bavarian Commemorative Medal for the Year 1849. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 15-Reverse Detail of a cast Bavarian Commemorative Medal for the Year 1849. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 16-Detail of the obverse of the cast medal. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 17-Detail of the obverse of the cast medal. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 18-Detail of the obverse of the cast medal. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 19-Detail of the obverse of the cast medal. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 20-Detail of the reverse of the cast medal. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 21-Detail of the reverse of the cast medal. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Figure 22-Detail of the reverse of the cast medal. Image from author’s archive.

 

 

Cataloguing known die-struck and old cast pieces, and their characteristics, would prove to be an interesting study, but is beyond the scope of this article.  I would be interested in seeing photos of pieces with advanced die crack impressions and photos of old cast pieces.  Please feel free to submit any photos of such pieces that are in your collections.

Thank you for your interest in this article.  Comments are welcome.

-Lorin

References:

Hessenthal, Waldemar Hesse Edlen von und Schreiber, Georg. Die tragbaren Ehrenzeichen des Deutschen Reiches. Verlag Uniformen-Markt Otto Dietrich. Berlin, 1940.

Heyden, Hermann von. Ehren-Zeichen (Kriegs-Denkzeichen, Verdienst- und Dienstalters-Zeichen) der erloschenen und blühen- den Staaten Deutschlands und Österreich-Ungarns. Kommissions-Verlag von Brückner & Renner, Herzogl. Hofbuchhandlung. Meiningen, 1897.

Knussert, Gustav. Orden Ehren- und-Verdienst-Zeichen Denk- und Dienstalters-Zeichen in Bayern. G. Franz’sche Buchdruckerei (J. Bolster). München, 1877.

Schreiber, Georg. Die Bayerischen Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Prestel-Verlag. München, 1964.

 

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6 Comments
  1. Servus Lorin,

    wieder ist Dir ein hervorragender Beitrag gelungen. Er handelt von der einzigen Medaille im Bereich der Phaleristik, die Maximilian II gestiftet hat. Sehr oft unbeachtet aber nicht weniger interessant.

    Die von Dir aufgeworfenen Fragen sind wohl endgültig nicht zu beantworten. Man kann versuchen, sich der Lösung etwas anzunähern. Auch das von Dir in den Quellen nicht genannte hervorragende Werk von Leser, „Die Ritter- und Verdienstorden, Ehren-, Verdienst- und Denkzeichen sowie Dienstalters-Auszeichnungen des Königreichs Bayern“ bringt da leider keine Lösung.

    Wenn die Werke der Phaleristik keine Lösung bringen, bediene ich mich gerne der Numismatik. Speziell hier sei Beierlein von 1901 genannt. Er beschreibt im Wesentlichen die Bestände der Königlichen Münzsammlung München (K.M.M.) Hier kann man lesen, dass er sowohl Medaillen aus Kupfer (Kupferlegierung) wie auch aus Bronze beschreibt. Eine Miniatur (Groschengröße), geschnitten von Johann Ries ist dort in der nächsten Nummer zu finden. Beierleins Beschreibungen sind jedoch nicht vollständig aber oftmals sehr hilfreich. Bei der beschriebenen Medaille aus Kupfer kann es sich um einen Probeabschlag oder aber auch um eine tatsächliche Variante handeln.

    Es wäre denkbar, dass für Zweitstücke in der späteren Zeit vor 1901 (Datum Beierlein) diese Medaillen nachgeprägt oder gegossen wurden. Eine endgültige Lösung der von Dir aufgeworfenen Fragestellung habe ich leider nicht.

    Auf jeden Fall ein interessantes und wissenswertes Thema, was Du hier eingestellt hast. Vielen Dank dafür.

    Eine Frage stellt sich mir. Sind die von Dir dargestellten Risse in der Medaillen tatsächlich vorhanden oder handelt es sich hierbei um Beschädigungen im Prägestempel, die sich im Prägebild der Medaille als Risse oberflächlich darstellen?

    Anbei habe ich noch Bilder, unter anderem von 3 sich in meiner Sammlung befindenden Medaillen angehängt, wo man im direkten Vergleich der Prägungen erkennen kann, dass es mindestens 2 Prägestempel für die Vorderseite gegeben haben muss. Weitere Unterscheidungsmerkmale auf der Vorder- und Rückseite habe ich noch nicht betrachtet.

    Viele Grüße aus Bayern
    Walter

    You will find Walter’s comments below translated into English:

    Greetings Lorin,

    again you made an excellent contribution. It is about the only medal in the field of phaleristics donated by Maximilian II. Very often unnoticed but no less interesting.

    The questions you raised probably cannot be finally answered. One can try to come closer to the solution. Even the excellent work by readers, which you did not mention in the sources, “The Knights and Merit Orders, Marks of Honor, Merit and Memories as well as Seniority Awards of the Kingdom of Bavaria” unfortunately does not provide a solution.

    If the works of phaleristics do not provide a solution, I am happy to use numismatics. Beierlein from 1901 should be mentioned here in particular. It essentially describes the holdings of the Königliche Münzsammlung München (K.M.M.). Here you can read that he describes both medals made of copper (copper alloy) and bronze. A miniature (groschen size) cut by Johann Ries can be found there in the next issue. Beierlein’s descriptions are not complete, but often very helpful. The copper medal described can be a trial discount or an actual variant.

    It is conceivable that these medals were minted or cast for second pieces in the later period before 1901 (date Beierlein). Unfortunately, I do not have a final solution to the question you raised.

    Definitely an interesting and worth knowing topic what you have posted here. Thanks a lot for this.

    One question arises for me. Are the cracks you represented in the medals actually present or is this damage to the die that appears on the surface as cracks in the embossed image of the medal?

    I have attached pictures, including 3 medals in my collection, where you can see in a direct comparison of the embossing that there must have been at least 2 embossing stamps for the front. I have not yet considered other distinguishing features on the front and back.

    Many greetings from Bavaria
    Walter

    • Servus Walter,

      Thank you for the additional information regarding this medal. It is interesting that Beierlein lists both copper and cannon bronze pieces.

      I believe that the first medal shown (photos: 1-11) was struck in copper alloy.

      To clarify, the cracks seen on the planchet of the first medal shown (photos: 1-11) are all raised features on the surface of planchet of the medal caused by the cracks in the face of the die used to strike the medal. The porosity and surface flaws seen on the planchet of the second medal shown (photos: 12-22) are all below the surface of the planchet of the medal. The porosity and surface flaws appear to be possible casting features. This medal was also heavily polished at some point in the past however and some polishing compound remains on the surface of the medal. But, it seems as though past polishing alone could not account for the flaws that are seen.

      With friendly greetings from the USA,

      Lorin

  2. Bilder Medaillen

    • Servus Walter,

      Thank you for the photos of examples from your collection. It is interesting to see that two (2) different obverse dies were used.

      With friendly greetings from the USA,

      Lorin

  3. Hello Lorin,
    I just found this great article.
    First of all, here are my two medals, but there are no stamp breaks to be seen here, just unfortunately a lot of dirt.
    Greetings Andreas

    • Hello Andreas,

      Thank you for your compliment and thank you for the photos of the medals
      from your collection. Your contribution is much appreciated.

      With friendly greetings from the USA,

      Lorin

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